These polls evaluate recent presidents only.  Historian and political scientist Julian E. Zelizer has argued that traditional presidential rankings explain little concerning actual presidential history and that they are "weak mechanisms for evaluating what has taken place in the White House".
, In May 2019, Dr. Alvin Tillery of the Center for the Study of Diversity and Democracy at Northwestern University and Dr. Christina Greer of Fordham University "conducted a poll of 113 academic researchers and asked them to rate the 14 modern presidents on both their overall leadership and rhetoric on diversity and inclusion using a scale ranging from 0 to 100.
According to a Rasmussen poll conducted in 2007, six presidents—George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy—were rated favorably by at least 80% of Americans. This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789.  Schlesinger's son, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., conducted another poll in 1996.. According to the editors, this poll included responses from more women, minorities and young professors than the 1996 Schlesinger poll. Obama, whom historians graded using 15 separate measures plus an overall grade, was rated most highly in the categories of communication ability, integrity and crisis management; and most poorly for his relationship with Congress, transparency and accountability. A Gallup poll taken on November 19–21, 2010, asked 1,037 Americans to say, based on what they know or remember about the nine most recent former presidents, whether they approve or disapprove of how each handled his job in office. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730. The most recent death of a former president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1974–77) on December 26, 2006 (aged 93 years, 165 days). , Alvin S. Felzenberg, a professor at both the Elliot School of International Affairs within George Washington University and the Annenberg School for Communication within the University of Pennsylvania, has authored The Leaders We Deserved (and a Few We Didn't) in an attempt to revise the understanding of presidential rankings.
George W. Bush, who presidential scholars had rated among the bottom five in the previous 2010 survey, improved to a position in the third quartile.
 More than 719 people took part in the poll, primarily academic historians and political scientists, although some politicians and celebrities also took part. * Ranking calculated before president had completed his term in office. Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540-4730. James Madison. The table provides a list of the vice presidents of the United States. ), Introduction (Lived: 90 years) March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801. Martin van Buren. Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States, The Leaders We Deserved (and a Few We Didn't), Historical rankings of chancellors of Germany, Historical rankings of prime ministers of Australia, Historical rankings of prime ministers of Canada, Historical rankings of prime ministers of the Netherlands, Historical rankings of prime ministers of the United Kingdom, "The Evaluation of Presidents: An Extension of the Schlesinger Polls", "Americans Say Reagan Is the Greatest U.S. President", "Rating the Presidents: Washington to Clinton", "Siena's 6th Presidential Expert Poll 1982 – 2018", "Historians Give Good Grades to Clinton Presidency in Siena College Survey", "Experts: Bush Presidency Is A Failure; Little Chance To Improve Ranking", "Rushmore Plus One; FDR joins Mountainside Figures Washington, Jefferson, Teddy Roosevelt and Lincoln as Top Presidents", "C-SPAN Releases Second Historians Survey of Presidential Leadership", "C-SPAN Releases Third Historians Survey of Presidential Leadership", "Methodology: Presidential Historians Survey 2017", "Who's the greatest?
These, in Felzenberg's opinion, should include looking at diverse factors from the performance of the U.S. economy due to presidential actions to leaders' behaviors in advancing the causes of individual liberty to intellectual competence in the administrations managed by the presidents and more. died before Jefferson assumed office;
The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents also gives the results of the 1982 survey, a poll of 49 historians conducted by the Chicago Tribune. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president. LIST OF US PRESIDENTS. , A 2013 History News Network poll of 203 American historians, when asked to rate Obama's presidency on an A–F scale, gave him a B- grade. A presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress. ), List The poll was initiated in 1982 and occurs one year into the term of each new president.
The bottom 10 often include James Buchanan, Warren G. Harding, Andrew Johnson, Franklin Pierce, Millard Fillmore, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Ulysses S. Grant, Zachary Taylor, and George W. Bush.
[Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson Johnson was a former War Democrat elected on the National Union ticket as Lincoln's vice president, but by 1868 the National Union Party disbanded but Johnson had not yet rejoined the Democratic Party.
 Felzenberg's broad motivation for the book came from his interest in American presidents and his intent "not to fix their reputations in concrete, but to provoke discussion.
Poll respondents rated the presidents in five categories (leadership qualities, accomplishments and crisis management, political skill, appointments and character and integrity) and the results were tabulated to create the overall ranking. A constitutional amendment, affecting presidents after Harry Truman, was passed to limit the number of times an individual can be elected president. The C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leadership consists of rankings from a group of presidential historians and biographers.  The results of all three C-SPAN surveys have been fairly consistent. The Siena College Research Institute of Siena College has conducted surveys in 1982, 1990, 1994, 2002, 2010, and 2018—during the second year of the first term of each president since Ronald Reagan. The results showed that historians had ranked Franklin D. Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Bill Clinton, Ronald Reagan and Barack Obama as the best since that year. The 2018 Siena poll of 157 presidential scholars reported George Washington, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Thomas Jefferson as the top five US presidents, with SCRI director Don Levy stating, "The top five, Mount Rushmore plus FDR, is carved in granite with presidential historians...." Donald J. Trump—entering the SCRI survey for the first time—joined Andrew Johnson, James Buchanan, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin Pierce among the bottom five US presidents. , A Vision Critical/Angus Reid Public Opinion poll taken on February 18–19, 2011, asked 1,010 respondents about 11 former presidents plus the current president and whether each was a good or bad president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy) and one resigned (Richard Nixon).. Because William Henry Harrison (31 days) and James A. Garfield (200 days, incapacitated after 119 days) both died shortly after taking office, they are usually omitted from presidential rankings. John Adams. Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States Selected Images From the Collections of the Library of Congress. Note: click the "sort" icon at the head of each column to view the rankings for each survey in numerical order. The 1996 column shows the results from a poll conducted from 1988 to 1996 by William J. Ridings Jr. and Stuart B. McIver and published in Rating The Presidents: A Ranking of U.S. George Washington, the first president, was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. , In 2002, Ron Walters, former director of the University of Maryland's African American Leadership Institute, stated that presidents ranked by how each one balanced the interests of majority interests and the interests of excluded groups was practical in respect to American debate on racial politics. The remaining places within the Top 10 are often rounded out by Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Harry S. Truman, Woodrow Wilson, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Andrew Jackson, and John F. Kennedy. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of
Washington had been ranked fourth in all previous surveys, and FDR first. Public opinion polls on recent presidents, Siena College Research Institute, Presidential Expert Poll of 2010, 2017 C-SPAN Presidential Historian Survey, Siena College Research Institute, Presidential Expert Poll of 2018, Northwestern Presidential Leadership on Diversity and Inclusion Survey (2019), Quartiles were determined by splitting the data into an upper and lower half and then splitting these into the first two and last two quartiles, respectively.
The editors noted that the results of their poll were "remarkably similar" to the 1996 Schlesinger poll, with the main difference in the 2000 poll being the lower rankings for the 1960s presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy and higher ranking of President Ronald Reagan at 8th. James Monroe. Both groups agreed on the composition of nine of the top ten presidents (and were split over the inclusion of either Lyndon B. Johnson or Dwight D. Eisenhower) and six of the worst seven (split over Jimmy Carter or Calvin Coolidge). As chief of the executive branch and face of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. Died in office, either by natural causes or assassination. For example, Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the.
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Douglas Lonnstrom, Siena College professor of statistics and director of the Siena Research Institute, stated: "In our 2002 presidential rating, with a group of experts comparable to this current poll, President Bush ranked 23rd of 42 presidents. Due to logistical delays, John Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution.
In November 2014, Henry L. Roediger III and K. Andrew DeSoto published a study in the journal Science asking research subjects to name as many presidents as possible. This poll sought to include an equal number of liberals and conservatives in the survey as the editors argued that previous polls were dominated by either one group or the other. The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a 4-year term by the people through the Electoral College.The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.. Walters stated there was a qualitative difference between white and African-American intellectuals in evaluating presidents.  These surveys collect presidential rankings from historians, political scientists, and presidential scholars in a range of attributes, abilities, and accomplishments. When splitting an odd number of values, the.
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