From 2003 to 2015, capital deepening accounted for 73 per cent of Indonesian labour productivity growth compared to 29 per cent in Philippines, 51 per cent in Thailand, and 66 per cent in China, where very high investment has nonetheless been accompanied by solid productivity growth. However, the policy reality is more complicated. The problems are structural.  According to data from the World Enterprise Survey, Indonesian firms report that 66 per cent of their investment is funded internally and 12.8 per cent is financed by banks: World Bank Group, Enterprise Surveys, “Indonesia 2015”, http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/data/exploreeconomies/2015/indonesia#finance.  It helps that the scale of bond purchases is still small, at 0.8 per cent of GDP in planned primary purchases, or 1.7 per cent of GDP if recent secondary market purchases are also added.
Monday, 23 July, 2001, 14:46 GMT 15:46 UK, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
In 2019, as Indonesia's share of global trade exceeded 0.5 percent, the United States Trade Representatives decided not to classify Indonesia as a "developing country. , Two US firms operate three copper/gold mines in Indonesia, with a Canadian and British firm holding significant other investments in nickel and gold, respectively. However, there is no reason Bank Indonesia could not extend this approach to purchase bonds directly in the primary market.
Required changes include allowing companies in all industries to legally have majority foreign ownership, cutting government bureaucracy, and removing protectionist barriers. Thus, Indonesia's current account deficit more than doubled, a development that is particularly due to rapidly rising imports.
Corruption particularly gained momentum in the 1990s, reaching to the highest levels of the political hierarchy as Suharto became the most corrupt leader according to Transparency International. All views and mistakes remain my own. Based on the latest Bank Indonesia data, credit growth in Indonesia's banking sector had risen by 8.9 percent (y/y) in April 2018, accelerating from a pace of 8.5 percent (y/y) in the preceding month. , From 1990 to 2010, Indonesian companies have been involved in 3,757 mergers and acquisitions as either acquirer or target with a total known value of $137 billion.  Pricewaterhouse Coopers, for instance, projects Indonesia will be ninth largest by 2030.
 Foreign investors hold about 40 per cent of rupiah-denominated Indonesian government bonds and account for over half of all turnover on the Indonesian stock exchange. Currently, Indonesia Investments' forecast for Indonesia's economic growth is set at 5.2 percent (y/y) in 2018. Similarly, Indonesia's efforts to sell off bank assets to recoup money spent on bailing out the banking sector have been troublesome. It has already begun to do so by temporarily suspending its budget deficit limit and taking the unorthodox step of allowing the central bank, Bank Indonesia, to directly finance part of the deficit.
Secondly, Indonesia is among a selected group of Asian emerging markets that are plagued by a wide current account deficit (together with India and the Philippines), particularly due to these countries appetite for crude oil imports.
Economic growth has stabilised as a result. Indonesia is widely seen as a future economic giant. , Sticking to a modest amount of deficit financing by Bank Indonesia, however, might not be desirable.
Meanwhile, in an effort to defend the rupiah, Indonesia's central bank (Bank Indonesia) significantly raised its benchmark interest rate over the past two months (the benchmark rose gradually from 4.25 percent in early May to 5.25 percent in late June). Figure 7: Faltering growth benefits from an expanding workforce, Panel A: Annual growth in gross value-added by source (%), Panel B: Annual labour productivity growth by broad sector (%). The first Republican government-controlled bank, the Indonesian State Bank (Bank Negara Indonesia, BNI) was founded on 5 July 1946. The economy, however, continues to be hemmed in by the need to protect stability while its growth model has been unable to deliver the productivity gains required to achieve faster growth within this constraint.
Combined with a well-capitalised banking system and conservative fiscal and monetary policies, which have kept government debt low at 29 per cent of GDP and inflation within the central bank’s target range, the result today is that Indonesia’s stability fundamentals are well anchored.
 World Bank, World Development Indicators, https://data.worldbank.org/.
Initial acceptance of a larger deficit was warranted to avoid putting further pressure on a slowing economy. Relying on external financing is thus becoming riskier and more expensive. Indonesia Economic Outlook. Indonesia has also missed out (again) on gaining access to the emergency dollar liquidity swap lines of the US Federal Reserve.
Indonesia enjoyed stronger fundamentals with the authorities implemented wide-ranging economic and financial reforms, including a rapid reduction in public and external debt, strengthening of corporate and banking sector balance sheets and reducing bank vulnerabilities through higher capitalisation and better supervision. These stock estimates suggest Jokowi’s progress so far has only arrested, rather than reversed, the deteriorating trajectory of the infrastructure deficit.  Nowadays, Indonesian automotive companies can produce cars with a high ratio of local content (80%–90%). Indonesia’s finance ministry must raise more than US$9 billion each month on average for the rest of the year.
By November 1997, rapid currency depreciation had seen public debt reach US$60 billion, imposing severe strains on the government's budget. More is available, but would require an IMF program as a precondition, therefore running into the same problems of political stigma that beset the IMF.  The Economist, “Indonesia’s Tax Amnesty Passes Its Deadline”, 30 March 2017, https://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21719822-it-brought-windfall-has-been-criticised-letting-evaders. AEC 2015 aims to transform Southeast Asia into a single economic union for trade, labor, and investment. As a result of a series macroeconomic policies, including a low budget deficit, Indonesia is considered to have moved into a situation of financial resources sufficiency to address development needs. Key bilateral partners, such as Australia, could complement this by providing a large standby loan facility to help reduce some of the inherent risks of Indonesia relying on its central bank. Indonesia is Southeast Asia's largest economy, rich in all types of natural resources as well as cultural diversity.  IMF, World Economic Outlook, April 2018 database, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/01/weodata/index.aspx. This deficit undermines investors' confidence in Indonesian assets and thus puts pressure on the rupiah as Indonesia has become dependent on external flows to finance its external deficits (which also determine the stability of the Indonesian rupiah). These items could also become subject to import tariffs and may provoke retaliatory moves from Indonesia's Trade Ministry; a situation that would be bad for both countries.
Pumping in additional reserves is unlikely to lead to an explosion in new credit growth, especially if the policy rate, deposit facility rate, and bond yields remain unchanged and the economy is battling recession. Overpopulation. On Friday (06/07) the global trade war kicked off as the USA imposed import tariffs on USD $34 billion worth of Chinese goods. Tariff-based protection has also risen, with the simple average applied import tariff rising from 7.0 per cent in 2014 to 8.3 per cent since 2016 based on figures from the World Integrated Trade Statistics database (https://wits.worldbank.org/) and updated by the World Bank Jakarta Office (http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia).
Indonesia is among the world’s largest exporters of automobiles, petroleum and palm oil too. Nonetheless, fuel subsidies still account for more than 15% of Indonesia’s total state budget. Bank Indonesia has so far said it would fund up to Rp 125 trillion (US$8.25 billion) of the deficit, though policy discussions have begun for expanding this further.. The preceding analysis suggests that, overall, Jokowi’s pro-growth efforts have been enough to stabilise a pre-existing negative trajectory, but not yet substantially reverse it.
The New York Times expressed concern that Indonesia's cheap labour advantage might be lost. Indonesia not only faces a budget financing constraint but also an external financing constraint in its inability to sustainably run a large current account deficit.
Due to decentralisation and fiscal space, Indonesia has the potential to improve the quality of its public services.  The lead-up to the 2013 ‘taper tantrum’ was a brief exception, with the current account deficit reaching above the 3 per cent of GDP warning level before market volatility and capital outflows eventually forced a correction. Indonesia was the only Asian member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) until 2008 and is currently a net oil importer.
, This points to a key shortcoming of Jokowi’s business climate reforms.
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