1999. Radiocarbon dating: Forcing of the cold event 8200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes. It has also been called the "Alluvium Epoch." The Holocene epoch is the geological period extending from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years before present (BP) (between 9560 and 9300 B.C.E.). People have the capacity to choose how they will impact the future of the other species on the planet and can choose to decrease species diversity or conserve biodiversity. The periods of the scheme include a few of the final, pre-Holocene, oscillations of the last glacial period and then classify climates of more recent prehistory. At that time, the climate was not unlike today's, but there was a slightly warmer period from the tenth to fourteenth centuries, known as the Medieval Warm Period. All key dates in human history can then be listed using a simple increasing date scale with smaller dates always occurring before larger dates. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article Human civilization dates entirely to the Holocene. The Holocene warming is an interglacial period and there is no reason to believe that it represents a permanent end to the Pleistocene glaciation. ", "The History of the Islamic Calendar in the Light of the Hijra", Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, "The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II]", "The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Rationale, section 4.16 Seconds Since the Epoch", International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Holocene_calendar&oldid=981893807, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The birth date of Jesus is a less universally relevant. Since many fossils provide data on climates and environments of the past, paleontologists are contributing to our understanding of how future environmental change will affect the Earth's life. Many believe that the earth is presently undergoing another mass extinction event, the "Holocene extinction event," and consider the arrival of human beings, and their dispersal over the globe, as linked to this current event. B. Birks, and F. Oldfield. However, ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 meters (110 ft) in the early part of the Holocene. It was an abrupt cold period that occurred from about 8400 to 8000 years ago (Barber et al. However, the Huelmo/Mascardi Cold Reversal in the Southern Hemisphere began before the Younger Dryas, and the maximum warmth flowed south to north from 11,000 to 7,000 years ago. 1999). The observed rate of extinction has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. A number of large animals including mammoths and mastodons, saber-toothed cats like Smilodon and Homotherium, and giant sloths disappeared in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene—especially in North America, where animals that survived elsewhere (including horses and camels) became extinct. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',169,'0','0'])); Both are followed by the aceramic Neolithic (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and the pottery Neolithic. The Holocene climatic optimum was a period of warming in which the global climate became 0.5-2°C warmer than today. However, the warming was probably not uniform across the world. Habitat destruction, pollution, and other factors are causing an ongoing mass extinction of plant and animal species; according to some projections, 20% of all plant and animal species on Earth will be extinct within the next 25 years. These extinctions, occurring near the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, are sometimes referred to as the Pleistocene extinction event, or Ice Age extinction event. The Holocene epoch is the culmination of billions of years of a step-by-step process of development, with life beginning in the Precambrian and unfolding through various eras, periods, and epochs. Only during these most recent parts of the extinction have plants also suffered large losses. The vast majority of scientists agree that human activity is responsible for "global warming," an observed increase in mean global temperatures that is still going on. Such disappearances have been considered as either a response to climate change, a result of the proliferation of modern humans, or both. A super-interglacial could become warmer than the Eemian Interglacial, which peaked at roughly 125,000 years ago and was warmer than the Holocene. * Date from the International Commission on Stratigraphy's International Stratigraphic Chart, 2009. The Holocene was preceded by the Younger Dryas cold period, the final part of the Pleistocene epoch. Another name for the Holocene that is sometimes used is the Anthropogene, the "Age of Man." The Holocene was preceded by the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 1.8 million years ago (mya) and ended at a time corresponding with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archeology. Human civilization dates entirely to the Holocene. Large mid-latitude area such as the Southwestern United States, which were previously productive, became deserts. Conversion from Julian or Gregorian calendar years to the Human Era can be achieved by adding 10,000 to the AD/CE year. The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD/BC or CE/BCE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gathererlifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements. Among the major megafauna exterminated about 9,000 to 15,000 years ago were the woolly mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, the Irish elk, the cave lion, the cave bear, and saber-toothed cats. The equivalent event in North America was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries. The HE scheme was first proposed by Cesare Emiliani in 1993 (11993 HE).[1]. Berger, W. H. 1990.

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